Heart Disease [video][video]
Coronary heart diseaseCardiac arrest
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirementsAn abrupt loss of heart function.
Myocardial infarctionCongestive heart failure
Gross necrosis of the myocardium, as a result of interruption of the blood supply to the area, as in coronary thrombosis.Failure of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to meet the needs of the body tissues

Ventricular Function
Left ventricular hypertrophyRight ventricular hypertrophy
Enlargement of the Left Ventricle of the heart.Enlargement of the Right Ventricle of the heart.
Left ventricular failureRight ventricular cardiomyopathy
Impaired left ventricular function, Left ventricular impairment, Left-sided heart failureRight ventricular dysfunction (global or regional)

Cardiac Electrophysiology
Heart blockCongenital heart block
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse occurring anywhere along the conduction pathway.Congenital complete heart block
Ventricular arrhythmiaSupraventricular arrhythmia
A disorder characterized by an electrocardiographic finding of an atypical cardiac rhythmA type of arrhythmia that originates above the ventricles

Blood Pressure
Blood pressure that is abnormally high.Abnormally low blood pressure that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs.
Elevated diastolic blood pressureElevated systolic blood pressure
Abnormal increase in diastolic blood pressure.Abnormal increase in systolic blood pressure.

AnemiaIron deficiency anemia
A laboratory test result demonstrating decreased levels of hemoglobin in a biological specimen.Anemia caused by low iron intake, inefficient iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, or chronic blood loss.
Aplastic anemiaHemolytic anemia
Aplastic anemia is a serious disorder of the bone marrow that affects between 2 and 5 persons per million per year.A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells or insufficient hemoglobin due to premature destruction of red blood cells

Blood Group Systems
ABO blood group systemBlood Group O
A blood group system based on recognition of inherited differences in the H antigen as expressed on erythrocytes.A blood group indicating the absence on erythrocytes of both the A and B forms of the H Antigen.
Duffy Blood group systemKell blood group system
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groupsMultiple erythrocytic antigens that comprise at least three pairs of alternates and amorphs, determined by one complex gene or possibly several genes at closely linked loci. The system is important in transfusion reactions.

Blood Glucose
Abnormally high blood glucose level.A decreased concentration of glucose in the blood.
Decreased glucose toleranceAbnormal glucose homeostasis
An abnormal resistance to glucose, i.e., a reduction in the ability to maintain glucose levels in the blood stream within normal limits following oral or intravenous administration of glucose.Abnormality of glucose homeostasis.

Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistanceInsulin-resistant diabetes mellitus
Decreased sensitivity to circulating insulinA type of diabetes mellitus related not to lack of insulin but rather to lack of response to insulin
Insulin insensitivityInsulinoma
Decreased sensitivity toward insulin.A benign tumor of the Pancreatic Beta Cells.

Pancreatic cystsPancreatic calcification
A cyst of the pancreas that possess a lining of mucous epithelium.The presence of abnormal calcium deposition lesions in the pancreas.
Pancreatic adenocarcinomaPancreatic squamous cell carcinoma
An adenocarcinoma which arises from the exocrine pancreas.A subtype of ductal pancreatic carcinoma that is thought to originate from squamous metaplasia of pancreatic ductal epithelium.

Liver abscessHepatocellular Carcinoma
A bacterial, parasitic, or fungal abscess that develops in the liver.Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major histologic type of malignant primary liver neoplasm.
Polycystic liver diseaseLiver cirrhosis
A usually asymptomatic hereditary disorder which is often associated with polycystic kidney disease.A chronic disorder of the liver in which liver tissue becomes scarred

Liver Fibrosis & Hepatitis
Liver inflammationA kind of neoplasm of the liver that originates from immature liver precursor cells
Hepatic failureHepatic fibrosis
A disorder characterized by the inability of the liver to metabolize chemicals in the body.The presence of excessive fibrous connective tissue in the liver.

Acute kidney injuryRenal sarcoma
Sudden and sustained deterioration of the kidney function characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate, increased serum creatinine or oliguria.Kidney Sarcoma, Renal Sarcoma
Renal neoplasmRenal cortical adenoma
Kidney cancer, Neoplasia of the kidneysThe presence of an adenoma in the cortex of the kidney.

Esophagus & Stomach
GastritisGastroesophageal reflux
Stomach inflammationAcid reflux, Heartburn
Gastrointestinal carcinomaGastrointestinal hemorrhage
Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal System, Digestive System CarcinomaGastrointestinal bleeding, GI haemorrhage

Intestinal obstructionIntestinal polyposis
Bowel obstruction, Intestinal blockageGastrointestinal polyps, Multiple intestinal polyps
Intestinal atresiaCrohn's disease
A congenital malformation characterized by the absence of a normal opening in a part of the intestine.A chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms.

ColitisColon cancer
Colitis refers to an inflammation of the colon and is often used to describe an inflammation of the large intestine (colon, cecum and rectum).A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm that affects the colon.
Colorectal adenomaColonic diverticula
An adenoma that arises from the colon or rectum.A pouch or sac opening from the colon.

SepsisNeonatal sepsis
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology.An infectious disorder of newborn infants that is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response most commonly caused by bacteria.
Septic arthritisSeptic shock
Arthritis caused by bacteria, rickettsia, mycoplasma, viruses, fungi or parasites.A state of acute circulatory failure characterized by persistent arterial hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation or by tissue hypoperfusion unexplained by other causes.

Combined immunodeficiencyImmunodeficiency
A broad classification of inherited disorders presenting at birth that affect both the cell-mediated and humoral aspects of the immune response.Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Severe combined immunodeficiency diseaseCellular immunodeficiency
Bubble boy disease, SCID, Severe combined immunodeficiency, Severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiencyAn immunodeficiency characterized by defective cell-mediated immunity or humoral immunity.

Autoimmune Disease
Rheumatoid arthritisOsteoarthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease, primarily of the joints, with autoimmune features and a complex genetic component.Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the joints characterized by degradation of the hyaline articular cartilage and remodeling of the subchondral bone with sclerosis.
Autoimmune diseaseSystemic lupus erythematosus
A disorder resulting from loss of function or tissue destruction of an organ or multiple organs, arising from humoral or cellular immune responses of the individual to his own tissue constituents.A complex autoimmune disease characterized by production of autoantibodies against nuclear, cytoplasmic, and cell surface molecules that transcend organ-specific boundaries.

T-cell Lymphoma & Leukemia [video]
LeukemiaT-cell lymphoma
A cancer of the blood and bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of leukocytes.A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors
T-cell prolymphocytic leukemiaT-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
A lymphoid leukemia characterized by a profound LymphocytosisSusceptibility to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

B-cell Lymphoma & Leukemia
B-cell lymphomaB-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) result from a malignant proliferation of lymphoid cells.
Monoclonal B-Cell LymphocytosisPre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
A monoclonal expansion of B-lymphocytes with or without the characteristic immunophenotype of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.A type of ALL characterized by elevated levels of B-cell lymphoblasts in the bone marrow and the blood.

NeutropeniaSevere congenital neutropenia
A decrease in the number of neutrophils in the peripheral blood.Agranulocytosis, Kostmann disease, Severe Infantile Genetic Neutropenia
Autoimmune neutropeniaCyclical neutropenia
Autoimmune-induced neutropenia.Cyclic hematopoiesis, Cyclic Neutropenia, ELANE-Related Neutropenia

ThyroiditisThyroid adenoma
Thyroid gland inflammationA benign, encapsulated tumor, arising from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid carcinomaThyroid hypoplasia
A carcinoma arising from the thyroid gland.Developmental hypoplasia of the thyroid gland.

Prostate [video]
ProstatitisProstatic Infection
An infectious or non-infectious inflammatory process affecting the prostate gland.An acute or chronic infectious process affecting the prostate gland.
Prostate neoplasmAdenocarcinoma of prostate
A benign, borderline, or malignant neoplasm that affects the prostate gland.An adenocarcinoma arising from the prostate gland. It is one of the most common malignant tumors afflicting men.

Breast [video]
Breast carcinomaBreast adenocarcinoma
A carcinoma arising from the breast, most commonly the terminal ductal-lobular unit. It is the most common malignant tumor in females.The most common histologic type of breast carcinoma.
Ductal breast carcinomaTriple-negative breast cancer
A breast carcinoma arising from the ducts. While ductal carcinomas can arise at other sites, this term is universally used to refer to carcinomas of the breast.An invasive breast carcinoma which is negative for expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, ERBB2).

Ovary [video]
Ovarian cystOvarian cancer
A cyst that arises from the ovary.Ovarian carcinoma
Ovarian epithelial cancerGranulosa cell tumor of the ovary
A malignant neoplasm originating from the surface ovarian epithelium.A granulosa-stromal cell tumor that arises from the ovary.

PregnancyNormal pregnancy
The state or condition of having a developing embryo or fetus in the body (uterus), after union of an ovum and spermatozoon, during the period from conception to birth.Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Ectopic pregnancyAcute fatty liver of pregnancy
A potentially life-threatening condition in which embryo implantation occurs outside the cavity of the uterus.Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare but severe complication occurring in the third trimester of pregnancy or in early postpartum period bearing a risk for perinatal and maternal mortality with manifestations of jaundice, rise of hepatic injuries and evolving to acute liver failure and encephalopathy.

Neonatal hypertensionNeonatal hypoglycemia
Abnormally high blood pressure in a newborn child.Blood glucose concentration below the lower limit of established reference ranges in a newborn.
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopeniaNeonatal diabetes mellitus
A condition in newborns caused by immunity of the mother to platelet alloantigens on the fetal platelets.Hyperglycemia in the newborn due to a defect in the secretion or function of insulin.

MalnutritionVitamin C deficiency
An imbalanced nutritional status resulting from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness.
Vitamin D deficiencyVitamin K deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of vitamin D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites.A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of vitamin K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage

Body Weight
ObesityWeight loss
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health.A reduction in total body weight.
AnorexiaWeight change
A lack or loss of appetite for food (as a medical condition).A clinical manifestation consisting of alterations in an individual's weight from his or her norm.

Difficulty walkingInability to walk
Any persistent problem with walking.A response indicating that an individual is or was unable to walk.
Difficulty climbing stairsDifficulty running
Reduced ability to climb stairs.Reduced ability to run.

Muscle crampsMuscle stiffness
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers.A condition in which muscles cannot be moved quickly without accompanying pain or spasm.
Muscle weaknessMuscular hypotonia
A reduction in the strength of one or more muscles.A condition of decreased tone of the skeletal muscles and diminished resistance to passive stretching.

HyperkeratosisStiff skin
Hyperkeratosis is thickening of the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneumAn induration (hardening) of the skin
Redundant skinDry skin
Loose redundant skin, folds, Sagging, redundant skinSkin characterized by the lack of natural or normal moisture.

White hairWhite forelock
Hypopigmented hair that appears white.A triangular depigmented region of white hairs
AlbinismOculocutaneous albinism
A congenital disorder characterized by partial or complete absence of melaninOculocutaneous Albinism

Bone Marrow
Bone marrow hypocellularityBone marrow hypercellularity
A reduced number of hematopoietic cells present in the bone marrow relative to marrow fat.A larger than normal amount or percentage of hematopoietic cells relative to marrow fat.
Bone Marrow NeoplasmInherited bone marrow failure syndrome
Neoplasms that affect the bone marrow.A group of inherited genetic hematopoietic stem cell disorders

Aneurysmal bone cystBone pain
A locally aggressive and destructive benign cystic lesion of the bone.An unpleasant sensation characterized by physical discomfort (such as pricking, throbbing, or aching) localized to bone.
Giant cell tumor of boneReduced bone mineral density
A benign but locally aggressive tumor that arises from the bone and is composed of mononuclear cells admixed with macrophages and osteoclast-like giant cells.A reduction of bone mineral density, that is, of the amount of matter per cubic centimeter of bones.

Cervical Spine
Cervical subluxationCervical cord compression
A partial dislocation of one or more intervertebral joints in the cervical vertebral column.Compression of the spinal cord in the cervical region
Cervical spine instabilityCervical spinal canal stenosis
An abnormal lack of stability of the cervical spine.An abnormal narrowing of the cervical spinal canal.

Skull Base ChordomaSkull Base Meningioma
A slow-growing malignant bone tumor arising from the remnants of the notochord and occurring in the base of the skull.A meningioma that arises from the skull base.
Cloverleaf skullBroad skull
Cloverleaf cranium shapeIncreased width of the skull.

A disorder characterized by acute inflammation of the meninges of the brainA congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges
A generally slow growing tumor attached to the dura mater.A congenital neural tube closure defect resulting in the protrusion of the brain and meninges through a skull opening.

Cerebral ventriculomegalyCerebral hemorrhage
Abnormal enlargement of the cerebral ventricles.Hemorrhagic stroke, Intracerebral hemorrhage
Cerebral edemaCerebral degeneration
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain.Neuroaxonal degeneration in the brain

Intracranial bleedStroke
Bleeding within the skull, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of meninges.A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to brain ischemia or intracranial hemorrhages.
Cerebral venous thrombosisCerebral ischemia
Formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a cerebral vein, causing the obstruction of blood flow.Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion.

Cortical Atrophy
Frontal cortical atrophyTemporal cortical atrophy
Atrophy of the frontal cortex.Atrophy of the temporal cortex.
Parietal cortical atrophyOccipital cortical atrophy
Atrophy of the parietal cortex.Atrophy of the occipital cortex.

A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis.A type of cancer that forms in certain types of nerve tissue.
Glioblastoma multiformeMedulloblastoma
A tumor arising from glia in the central nervous system with macroscopic regions of necrosis and hemorrhage.Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor in children.

Multiple Sclerosis & Demyelination
Multiple sclerosisRelapsing remitting multiple sclerosis
A progressive autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system resulting in demyelination.The most common clinical variant of multiple sclerosis, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery.
CNS demyelinationPeripheral demyelination
A loss of myelin from nerve fibers in the central nervous system.A loss of myelin from the internode regions along myelinated nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system.

ClonusHemifacial spasm
A form of involuntary muscular movement characterized by alternating contractions and relaxation in rapid succession.Intermittent clonic or tonic contraction of muscles supplied by facial nerve.
BlepharospasmSpasmus nutans
A focal dystonia that affects the muscles of the eyelids and brow, associated with involuntary recurrent spasm of both eyelids.The combination of pendular nystagmus, head nodding, and torticollis.

Alzheimer's Disease & Cognitive Impairment
Alzheimer's diseaseNeurodegeneration
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by dementia that typically begins with subtle and poorly recognized failure of memory and slowly becomes more severe and, eventually, incapacitating.Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells.
DementiaCognitive impairment
A loss of global cognitive ability of sufficient amount to interfere with normal social or occupational function.A notable change in cognitive function.

Personality disorderPersonality changes
A diverse category of psychiatric disordersA noticeable change in a person's behavior and thinking.
Bipolar affective disorderSchizophrenia
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swingsIn humans, "synaptic pruning" is most active during late adolescence, which coincides with the typical onset of symptoms of schizophrenia.

Panic attackViolent behavior
A sudden episode of intense fear in a situation in which there is no danger or apparent cause.Any action that results in intimidation, harm, damage, or destruction of someone or something.
Mood swingsDepression
A condition of frequent mood changes associated with excessive emotional reactions.Decreased Mood, Depressed, Depressed mood, Depressed Mood, Low Mood

NarcolepsyExcessive daytime sleepiness
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness that may be associated with automatic behaviors and amnesia.A state of abnormally strong desire for sleep during the daytime.
Short-sleeperSleep onset Insomnia
Individuals with this trait require less sleep in any 24-hour period than is typical for their age group.Difficulty initiating sleep, that is, increased sleep onset latency.

Hearing impairmentConductive hearing impairment
Congenital deafness, Congenital hearing lossAn abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear
TinnitusBilateral sensorineural hearing impairment
Ringing in ears, Ringing in the earsA bilateral form of sensorineural hearing impairment.

Inner Ear
Vestibular hypofunctionVestibular dysfunction
Reduced functioning of the vestibular apparatus.Impaired vestibular function
Vestibular SchwannomaBilateral vestibular Schwannoma
A benign Schwannoma of the eighth cranial nerve (Vestibulocochlear Nerve)A bilateral vestibular Schwannoma (acoustic neurinoma).

MyopiaSevere Myopia
Near sightednessSevere near sightedness
Blurred visionProgressive visual loss
Blurred vision is the loss of visual acuity (sharpness of vision)A reduction of previously attained ability to see.

Corneal dystrophyCorneal erosion
An abnormality of the cornea that is characterized by opacity of one or parts of the cornea.An erosion or abrasion of the cornea's outermost layer of epithelial cells.
Corneal neovascularizationCorneal opacity
Ingrowth of new blood vessels into the cornea.A reduction of corneal clarity.

Retina [video]
Retinal atrophyRetinal dysplasia
Well-demarcated area(s) of partial or complete depigmentation in the fundusCongenital, often bilateral, retinal abnormality
Retinal degenerationRetinal dystrophy
A nonspecific term denoting degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and/or retinal photoreceptor cells.A group of disorders involving predominantly the posterior portion of the ocular fundus, due to degeneration in the sensory layer of the retina

Macula [video]
Macular dystrophyMacular thickening
Macular dystrophy is a nonspecific term for premature retinal cell aging and cell death, generally confined to the macula in which no clear extrinsic cause is evident.Abnormal increase in retinal thickness in the macular area observed on fundoscopy or fundus imaging.
Macular degenerationAge-related macular degeneration
A nonspecific term denoting degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and/or retinal photoreceptor cellsAMD, ARMD, Macular Degeneration: Senile macular degeneration

Optic Disc
Optic disc drusenOptic disc hypoplasia
Optic disc drusen are acellular, calcified deposits within the optic nerve head.Underdevelopment of the optic disc, that is of the optic nerve head, where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve.
Optic disc pallorDiffuse optic disc pallor
A pale yellow discoloration of the optic diskA pale yellow discoloration of the entire optic disc.

Optic Nerve
Optic nerve hypoplasiaOptic neuropathy
A congenital abnormality characterized by the underdevelopment of the optic nerve.Damage to the optic nerve.
Optic nerve dysplasiaOptic nerve glioma
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the optic nerve.A glioma originating in the optic nerve or optic chiasm.

Smooth tongueGeographic tongue
Glossy appearance of the entire tongue surface.A benign condition characterized by the development of irregular patches in the surface of the tongue resulting in a map-like appearance.
Protruding tongueSquamous cell carcinoma of the tongue
Tongue extending beyond the alveolar ridges or teeth at rest.A carcinoma derived from a squamous epithelial cell of the tongue.

Dental crowdingDental malocclusion
Overlapping teeth within an alveolar ridge.An inherited or acquired dental abnormality characterized by improper alignment of the teeth.
Delayed eruption of permanent teethPremature loss of primary teeth
Delayed tooth eruption affecting the secondary dentition.Loss of the primary (also known as deciduous) teeth before the usual age.

GingivitisGingival bleeding
Gingival inflammation, Inflamed gums, Red and swollen gumsBleeding gums, Gingival hemorrhage, Gingivorrhagia
Gingival fibromatosisGingival overgrowth
Gingival fibroma, Gingival fibrous nodules, Hereditary gingival fibromatosis, Idiopathic gingival hyperplasiaGingival enlargement, Gingival hyperplasia, Gingival hypertrophy, Gum enlargement, Gum hypertrophy, Oral soft tissue hyperplasia

RhinitisNasal obstruction
Inflammation of the nasal mucosa with nasal congestion.Reduced ability to pass air through the nasal cavity often leading to mouth breathing.
Nasal polyposisDeviated nasal septum
A soft and painless polypoid mass that arises from the mucosa in the nasal cavity.An alteration of the septum from the midline.

LaryngomalaciaLaryngeal edema
A congenital or acquired condition of underdeveloped or degeneration of cartilage in the larynx.Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of any part of the larynx, commonly associated with laryngeal injuries and allergic reactions.
Laryngeal cleftLaryngeal carcinoma
A rare congenital abnormality in the laryngo-tracheal wall.Cancer of the larynx, Laryngeal cancer

Chronic bronchitisRecurrent bronchitis
A subcategory of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.An increased susceptibility to bronchitis as manifested by a history of recurrent bronchitis.
A chronic respiratory disease manifested as difficulty breathing due to the narrowing of bronchial passageways.Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways.

Respiratory Disease
An acute, acute and chronic, or chronic inflammation focally or diffusely affecting the lung parenchyma, due to infection, treatment, or exposure to chemicals.An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract.
EmphysemaChronic obstructive pulmonary disease
A subcategory of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It occurs in people who smoke and suffer from chronic bronchitis.COPD is defined by irreversible airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or small airways disease.

Respiratory insufficiencyRespiratory distress
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the bodyBreathing difficulties, Difficulty breathing
Respiratory arrestRespiratory failure
Breathing cessationA severe form of respiratory insufficiency

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